Sunday, August 23, 2020

Reputation In The Crucible Essay Example For Students

Notoriety In The Crucible Essay The disintegration of Salems social structure encouraged the killings of numerous guiltless individuals. Arthur Millers delineation of the Salem witch preliminaries, The Crucible, manages a network that begins seeming as though it is closely knit and church adoring. Notably, once Tituba begins pointing her finger at the witches, the network begins pointing their fingers at one another. Panic and shrouded plans separate the social structure and afterward everybody must shield themselves from the individuals that they thought were their companions. The congregation, lawful framework and the fellowship of the network kicked the bucket with the goal that youngsters could secure their families societal position. Being disengaged from some other gathering of individuals with various convictions made a congregation drove Puritan culture that couldn't acknowledge a great deal of progress. The congregation was against the fallen angel, simultaneously it was against such things as moving and o ther untimely acts. The notoriety of the family was imperative to the individuals from the network. At the point when the young ladies were discovered moving in the forested areas, they deceived secure themselves as well as the notoriety of their families. They guaranteed that the villain took them over and affected them to move. The young ladies additionally said that they saw individuals from the town remaining with the fiend. A people group living in a puritan culture like Salem could without much of a stretch go into a tumultuous state and make some troublesome memories managing what they consider to be the biggest type of underhandedness. Salems agitation caused the network to lose confidence in the profound convictions that they were attempting to carefully authorize. The congregation lost a large number of its parishioners in light of the fact that the enthusiasm of the town was currently on Abigail on the grounds that individuals needed to realize who would have been named s traightaway. At the point when the congregation was attempting to ban John Proctor, there were insufficient individuals at chapel to do it. The individuals were getting deluded so far as to leave a knife stuck in the entryway of their priests house: Tonight, when I make my way for leave my housea blade clacked to the groundThere is peril for me.(128) were Parris precise words. With the transport of God dreading for his life there was no longer anybody however Abigail to lead the network. The equity framework is intended to ensure the individuals that it serves yet during the preliminaries the charged witch had two options, demise or detainment. The discipline of death was given to all individuals that argued not liable; the other discipline was to concede and go to prison. John Proctor gave his perspective on the equity framework when he said I like not the smell of this power (29). What's more, do you realize that close to 400 are in the correctional facilities from Marblehead to L ynn, and upon my signature?(85) said Danforth, portraying the quantity of individuals that were in prison on charges of black magic. There were such huge numbers of individuals executed that Hale remarked there are vagrants meandering from house to house; relinquished steers roar on the highroads, the smell of spoiling crops hangs everywhere(130) Salem was transforming into a phantom town. With Abigail controlling the network, the congregation done getting the entire town to petition, and an out of line lawful framework, it is common that the individuals were in a condition of absolute confusion. The unexplained was brought about by the villain, so a few individuals from Salem utilized the unexplained furthering their potential benefit. Mrs. Putnam came clean when she stated, There are wheels inside wheels in this town, and flames inside fires!(26) Mrs. Putnam did a lot of spreading gossipy tidbits after she heard that the young ladies were flying, so she asked Parris How high did s he (Abigail) fly, how high?(11). These bits of gossip happened in light of the fact that individuals didn't need any accuse put for to themselves. This shifting responsibility elsewhere made individuals begin battling with each other, for example, Corey charging Putnam of having his little girl blame an occupant for black magic so as to get Coreys land. Abigail utilized her capacity of getting individuals to hear her out to further her potential benefit when she accused Proctors mate of being a witch so Abigail could live with John. This again demonstrates Abigail had control of the town and the unexplained turned neighbor against neighbor. The social breakdown in Salem was the main consideration in the catastrophe that ended the lives of numerous blameless individuals. There was more than one disaster in The Crucible. The first was the killing of numerous blameless individuals, and the second was that a network that was once exceptionally close had been broken separated. It created the impression that the individuals of Salem resembled a family yet segregation really made them unfit to adjust to an inconvenient circumstance. On the off chance that the network could have had a more noteworthy impact from another gathering of individuals then the social structure would have had the option to adjust. .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .postImageUrl , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .focused content region { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:hover , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:visited , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:active { border:0!important; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; mistiness: 1; progress: haziness 250ms; webkit-progress: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:active , .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:hover { obscurity: 1; progress: murkiness 250ms; webkit-change: murkiness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relat ive; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .ctaText { outskirt base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content improvement: underline; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; fringe: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: intense; line-tallness: 26px; moz-fringe sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content adornment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ud36f 1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ud36f1949cb50e3a87e1e09994f4a04b8:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Child Abuse Essay Book reference:

Friday, August 21, 2020

multiple sclerosis Essay Summary Example For Students

numerous sclerosis Essay Summary 3/25/03Anatomy Period 1Multiple SclerosisMy auntie has had Multiple Sclerosis for around 11 years now. She began demonstrating indications when she was 27. I recall the day that I strolled into my folks space to discover my mother on the telephone crying. I remained to tune in to the discussion and when she was off the telephone she mentioned to me what was happening. Everything I could do by then was recollect the entirety of the occasions we went on bicycle rides and had a great deal of fun. It was a downright awful inclination realizing that we could never get the opportunity to do any of that again. It was extremely difficult for my uncle to deal with and I am certain it despite everything is, except at whatever point I go over theyre house everybody is chipper and simple to converse with. At whatever point I find the opportunity I converse with my auntie and she is still canny and amusing to hold a discussion with. So in the event that you ever observe an individual with an infe ction, don't be hesitant to converse with them for they are savvy. Different Sclerosis (MS) is an interminable, frequently incapacitating ailment that haphazardly assaults the focal sensory system. Explicit manifestations of the sickness can not be anticipated. The manifestations may go from shivering and deadness to loss of motion and visual impairment. MS is an overwhelming ailment since individuals live with its flighty physical and passionate impacts for the remainder of their lives. My auntie must be feed, washed; she can't do anything for herself. MS is a notable sickness, however inadequately comprehended. In the United States there are around 200 new cases analyzed every week. MS is a typical ailment and not generally brought about by hereditary qualities. Along these lines, I feel we as a whole need to have a superior comprehension of this infection that has no fix yet. My auntie has been in my supplications and numerous different people groups for quite a while. I simply n eed to see her dispose of the frightful infection. I plan to make MS all the more understanding in my paper. In my paper I will clarify what MS is, who gets MS, what MS has to do with the digestion, what a portion of the manifestations of MS are, and a few medicines for MS. Various sclerosis is a dynamic debilitating ailment that influences nerve cells in the mind and spinal string. Under typical conditions these nerve cells are encircled by a protecting sheath made of greasy myelin, which speeds the section of nerve impulses.The disturbance of nerve flags in the cerebrum and spinal rope causes an assortment of indications that influence vision, sensation, and body developments. My auntie has wild shaking at whatever point she attempts to move. MS is a long lasting ceaseless ailment that begins in youthful grown-ups who have an ordinary future. The financial, social, and clinical expenses related with the illness are noteworthy. Appraisals place the yearly expenses of MS in the United States in abundance of $2.5 billion. Nobody realizes precisely what number of individuals have MS. It is accepted that there are around 250,000 to 350,000 individuals in the United States with MS. What's more, MS is the most well-known nerve malady to create in little youn gsters after birth, and around 1 million youthful grown-ups have it around the globe. Close family members of an individual with MS are multiple times more probable than normal to build up the illness themselves, and offspring of an individual with MS run 30 to multiple times the normal hazard. I should place my cousin in my supplications. A great many people experience their first manifestations of MS between the ages of 20 and 40. In spite of the fact that researchers have recorded instances of MS in little youngsters and older grown-ups, indications seldom start before age 15 or after age 60. White individuals are more than twice as likely as different races to create MS. By and large, ladies are influenced at double the pace of men. To comprehend what's going on when an individual has MS, you have to know a little about how the solid resistant framework functions. In immune system maladies, for example, MS, the dtente between the invulnerable framework and the body is upset when the insusceptible framework appears to wrongly distinguish self cells as nonself and proclaims war with respect to the body it does not perceive anymore. Through concentrated research endeavors, researchers are disentangling the unpredictable privileged insights of the failing safe arrangement of patients with MS. Examiners are likewise searching for variations from the norm or breakdowns in the blood/cerebrum hindrance, a defensive layer that controls the section of substances from the blood into the focal sensory system. It is conceivable that parts of the insusceptible framework traverse the hindrance and cause sensory system harm, in MS. Viral diseases are normally joined by irritation and the creation of gamma interferon, a normally happening body concoction that has been appeared to intensify the clinical course of MS. It is conceivable that the safe reaction to viral diseases may themselves encourage a MS assault. My uncle had a viral disease and I feel that that is the way it began in my auntie. .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .postImageUrl , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .focused content territory { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:hover , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:visited , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:active { border:0!important; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; mistiness: 1; change: murkiness 250ms; webkit-progress: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:active , .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:hover { obscurity: 1; change: haziness 250ms; webkit-progress: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .focused content zone { width: 100%; position: relati ve; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content improvement: underline; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: intense; line-stature: 26px; moz-fringe sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content enrichment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u0bc4aa14 5a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u0bc4aa145a1a46126ce14eb5182b0029:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Reflection on Plato's Allegory of the Cave EssayThe qualities an individual acquires may help decide if that individual is at expanded hazard for creating MS. While there is proof from examines that this hereditary part exists, it has all the earmarks of being just one factor among a few. Doubtlessly a people hereditary outline decides whether that individual will be vulnerable to an activating component, which thusly starts the immune system process that prompts the improvement of MS. In the previous hardly any years, researchers have discovered how to pinpoint the hereditary variables that allow an individual to get MS. These instruments are the techniques for atomic geneticstechniques used to segregate and decide the substance structure of qualities. Numerous doctors accept that the previous MS is analyzed and treatment started, the better the result will be. Manifestations of MS might be little or serious, of quite a while or short, and may show up in different blends. Complete or fractional reduction of side effects, particularly in the beginning periods of the illness, happens in roughly 70 percent of MS patients. The underlying manifestation of MS is regularly obscured or twofold vision, red-green shading contortion, or even visual impairment in one eye. Visual issues will in general clear up in the later phases of MS. Fifty-five percent of MS patients will have an assault of optic neuritis sooner or later or other and it will be the principal side effect of MS in around 15 percent. This has prompted general acknowledgment of optic neuritis as an early indication of MS, particularly if tests a dditionally uncover variations from the norm in the patients spinal liquid. My aunties first indication was genuine terrible obscured vision. Most MS patients experience muscle shortcoming in their furthest points and trouble with moving and parity sooner or later throughout the ailment. Discourse hindrances, tremors, and tipsiness are other continuous grumblings. Every so often, individuals with MS have hearing misfortune. Around half surprisingly with MS experience psychological weaknesses, for example, troubles with focus, consideration, memory, and misguided thinking, however such indications are normally mellow and are much of the time disregarded. The unforgiving side effects of MS can influence the whole family as patients may get unfit to work simultaneously they are confronting high doctor's visit expenses and extra costs for housekeeping help and adjustments to homes and vehicles. My uncle has moved to three unique houses because of my aunties condition. He at last moved close to my grandpa so he can help in the field and consistently be near and dear. My cousin homes tutoring on the grounds that it would be too difficult to even consider finding a ride for her for what it's worth. My auntie with MS used to be an educator is still extremely keen so she shows my cousin. The enthusiastic channel on both patient and family is limitless. They have worked it out now so they are house is brimming with cheerful moods. As of not long ago, the key meds doctors used to treat MS

Thursday, July 9, 2020

Psychology of Serial Killers Nature vs Nurture - Free Essay Example

The question of whether or not a man is determined to lead a life of crime and destruction is a question that has and will continue to be debated for decades. Do serial killers develop a desire for murder for as they start to grow up; through years of abuse and torment, or are they born with it? Some scientists believe that a child can be born with the capacity to commit a horrible act such as murder, while others believe that it is impossible for an innocent child to be born like that. Therefore, society is the one that pushes them into corruption (Warf 2002). The way a child is raised, social relations, and social-economical problems are the most important ways a serial killer can be created. In addition, family backgrounds have a significant role in the life of a child, but genetics should not be ignored. Chemical properties and hormones are essential in the genetics of a serial killer, because they can lead to crime and violence (Quinn 2006). In short, both nature and nurture are essential in shaping a serial killer. All serial killers have three aspects that they show in their childhood. The first one is bedwetting which is related to psychological, emotional, and physical abuse. Secondly, is the act of fire setting. Children who create fires to random things, feel so much negative emotions such as; anger, and hatred, that they cannot control their impulsions towards starting a fire (Vronsky 269). Lastly, another sign that children show at a young age, can be descried as feeling deep motivation and impulsion to torturing animals. In addition, they usually enjoy spending time with dead animals, that some even resort to taxidermy (Warf 2002). Taxidermy is when an animals body is preserved via mounting, or stuffing. Research into serial killers has been getting more comprehensive over time. But even though there are many investigations and researches into the mind of serial killers, there is still not enough scientific info rmation about why they do horrible things (Quinn 2006). In 1998, a new law that defined the term serial killers was established. The term serial killer is a person who murders three or more people, because of pleasure. The murders take place over an extended period of time, and with a significant break in between the murders (Interview: McGrath). While some may kill for revenge or robbery, serial killers do not. Serial killers act because of their deep, suppressed emotions, they are not driven by greed, revenge, hatred, envy or spur-of-the-moment violence. So, one might ask themselves, how are serial killers created? In the psychological community, the debate of nature versus nurture has been and will continue to be an endless one. People who study society, social interaction and culture of everyday life such as sociologists, have been dealing with this issue for years in analyzing serial killers. One of the questions that is constantly being asked is: does nature, nurture, or a mixture of both are what create a serial killer? Proponents of the nature side of the debate, argue that all our traits are decided as soon as we are born. Nature focuses on the characteristics a person is born with, such as; personality traits, genetic make-up, and physical predispositions (Keltner 2003). Proponents of nature take into consideration DNA, and biological connections to our parents. A syndrome that is very common in the nature side of serial killers, is the XYY syndrome. The Y chromosome is about maleness which causes more aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior. People who have the XYY syndrome can be have a greater motivation towards killing and be more sadistic (Vronsky 247). People who are on the side of nurture, believe that what determines what a person becomes and who they are, is based on the environment around them. Nurture emphasizes on the experiences that change and mold us as we grow up, what we are thought at school, our culture, and how we are raised by our parents (Keltner 2003). The way a child is raised and the environment around them can completely change who they will become. But combining a traumatic upbringing and genes can have a bad result on what a person becomes in the future. One of the serial killers that is referred as being created through nature is David Berkowizt, known as the Son of Sam. In 1976, David terrorized the New York City area from July 1976 to July 1977, he killed six people and wounded seven, using a .4 4 revolver gun. When David was a child, everyone who knew him, described him as a polite and quiet young man (Vronsky 279). He was adopted by Nathan and Pearl Berkowitz, and they raised David in a supportive, and loving environment. Nathan and Pearl Berkowitz gave David everything he needed and wanted, they treated him with as much love as a parent could give, and David grew up in an environment that could lead to good mental health and happiness. David grew up in such a healthy environment without trauma, that shows the only reason he could have acted out, was because he is an example of a serial killer created by nature. As stated before, nature deals with genetics, therefore, this was a predominant cause that lead David into a killing spree. Since Davids upbringing was a good one, the nature of his inner self must be examined. Although there is no record of the mental health or criminal history, of Davids biological parents, it is assumed that biological factors contributed to his negative behavior (Vronsky 286). Davids positive childhood environment was not able to override his natural mental tendencies towards killing. David stated that his reason for killing was that to keep the demons quiet (Vrosnky 288). He claimed that the demons in his head would not leave him alone and stop tormenting him; in order to get rid of the demons, he began to do whatever they wanted. This shows that David had a psychological problem. Another example of his mental disorder appeared when he was an adult, which continued to affect his life. He convinced himself that his house owners were part of the demon conspiracy, so he moved into another apartment, but was still controlled by the demons in his head (Vronsky 289). This evidence shows that David suffered from deep mental dysfunction, most likely born in his genes. Another example of a serial killer born through nature is Jeffrey Dahmer, known as the Milwaukee Cannibal. Dahmer, murdered, raped, and dismembered seventeen boys and men between the years of 1978 and 1991. Dahmer had a normal childhood with no abuse or serious neglect, he describes that he felt a compulsion towards committing the crimes (Vronsky 244). Did David commit all these crimes because he was born with psychological problems, or was there aspects of the way he was raised that set him on the wrong path? David states that he felt a compulsion towards killing and could not resist the urge to behave differently. Despite cases like the Son of Sam, and Jeffrey Dahmer, where nature takes the main role in the contribution of creating a serial killer, many times nature is not the only or the main factor towards shaping a serial killer. The way a child is raised can change their entire life; it can change their personality, and attitude (Keppel 2003) Ed Gein, and Ted Bundy are well known serial killers in history, and the thing that connects them, is that both of them had a traumatic childh ood that lead to destruction. Ed Gein was born in 1906 as the younger of two boys. Gein was a shy boy that grew up with a dominant, deeply religious mother who often taught her children that women were evil and discouraged them of all sexual desires, and Geins father was an alcoholic. Gein was unhealthily too attached to his mother, which caused great criticism and jealousy from his older brother Henry, who died in a mysterious fire. It wasnt till later that Gein was suspected of killing his own brother, and after his mother died there was no one to control his impulses, therefore, Gein started to perform gruesome experiments on dead bodies and live out his dark fantasies. In the book, Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters, Peter Vronsky states that when the police visited Geins farm, They foundhuman entrails in the refrigerator; shoebox with nine vulvasand masks made out of the flesh of females. The trigger to his killing spree is that he believed by collecting fresh bodies, he could transform himself into the sex change that he wanted. Gein claims that his killing spree and disturbing psychological state was due to his love-hate relationship towards his mother (Vronsky 186). Another serial killer that started due to the environmental conditions around them, was one of the most infamous killers of all time; Ted Bundy. Vronsky states, He was a necrophiliac who kidnapped, murdered, raped and mutilatedtwenty college-age women over a period of six monthskept four heads in his apartment. Bundy was born in 1946 in Burlington, Vermont as Theodore Robert Cowell, to an unmarried mother of 22. During the 1940s having a child out of wedlock was scan dalous, as a result, Bundy was made to believe by his grandparents that he was their son and that his mother was his sister (Keppel 198-199).After Bundys mother married his stepfather, known to him as his uncle, he attempted to form a relationship with Bundy; however Bundy continued to be distant and detached himself from them. When Bundy was a child, he was socially awkward, and had a low self-esteem, and because of this he was often pranked and teased by bullies in his middle school. Although Bundy was constantly bullied, he was fascinated by politics and enjoyed skiing, as he grew up, he appeared to be a normal young man, and was devastated when his first love left him. However, Bundy did not deal with grief as most people do. At the same time that his heart was broken, he discovered who his true parents were, and that had a serious impact on him. Bundy became addicted to pornography which he claims, it was what led him to do what he did (Keppel 198-199). This addiction, along with the trauma that took place in his life, most likely played a major role in contributing to mental deterioration, and violent behavior. An important step to stopping homicidal rampages that serial killers go on, is by understanding why and how serial killers commit such horrific crimes. Scientists found that genetics is the key role in determining who becomes a serial killer, however, psychologist and criminologist argue that major events such as abandonment, and abuse set the foundati on in which a serial killer grows into a sadistic mass murderer. Both arguments are strongly proved and explained above, with the stories of the Son of Sam, Jeffrey Dahmer, Ed Gein, and Ted Bundy. It is a mix of both cultural upbringings, and genetics that shape a serial killer. Many humans deal with violent situations as children and go through horrific events, many of them do not become serial killers. It is true that children who are victims of abuse become violent in their adult lives but to cross the line of a serial killer, one must have some negative biochemical makeup to make them act out. Nature does decide what traits we are born with, but these traits cannot be exposed without a mechanism that triggers serial killers into committing horrific crimes. If we curb domestic violence, then maybe the chances for a serial killer to become violent as they grow up, will decrease in a significant way that will make our world a safer place. If we had better knowledge on what creates a serial killer, then future advancements towards preventing these crimes could be offered by supporting abused children. In addition, with the development of new technology, scientists could develop a drug that could help an individual function successfully and help serial killers with their genetics. However, most serial killers dont accept help, nor do they stop, no matter what help is offered to them. Serial killers continue to kill until they are stopped and arrested, and even then, they have no desire to become better. In conclusion, it is important to not give up on individuals in our society, because if this happened, society would lack the social cohesion that is essential for human flourishing. The only way to get a better understanding of a serial killer is to get inside their heads, and try to comprehend their life experiences, and why an individual has become a heartless, cold person who goes to extreme lengths to harm people.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

How Parents Affect Their Children s Behaviors, Reactions,...

Parents can influence their children’s behaviors, reactions, and thoughts in many ways. Among them is the style of parenting employed, whether they are strict, negligent, supportive or uncaring. The way they speak to their children will be determined by the parenting style, demanding obedience without question, explaining the rules, being emotionally abusive or physically abusive. Abuse of any kind can leave lasting impressions on a child throughout their lifespan. Peers can also influence behavior and thoughts by being supportive and welcoming or by bullying or rejecting a child due to their sexuality, circumstances, or ideas. â€Å"The adolescent brain is often likened to a car with a fully functioning gas pedal (the reward system) but weak brakes (the prefrontal cortex).† (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014, p.8) While adolescents are individuals with their own minds and ability to control their actions, parents and peers influence adolescent behavior and thought in a multitude of different ways, from gender roles they are expected to fill, showing them how temperament affects behavior and interaction with peers and authority figures, and risky behaviors such as drinking and driving, using drugs, and having unprotected sex. Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural theory of cognitive development focuses on the social influences surrounding an individual throughout their lifespan, birth through death. It â€Å"places a central focus on social interaction as a medium in which childrenShow MoreRelatedWhile The Rate Of Divorce Has Rapidly Increased In Recent1659 Words   |  7 Pageshave children and divorce is an impactful event that can cause life lasting effects on children. The effects that divorce has on children can cause serious psychological issues that may form and develop over time from toddlers into the adolescent stage of their lives. The divorce itself does not affect children in a negative way. The effects result more often from the feeling of uncertainty of what is going to happen after the divorce, from the level of conflict between the parents and from how theRead MoreDivorce And Its Effect On Children998 Words   |  4 Pagesdivorce, there are many children that have to go through this situation at a very young age. Children of ages three to six have a difficult time understanding why their parents are splitting up. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Contemporary Perspectives of Learning and Development For Early Childh

Question: Discuss about theContemporary Perspectives of Learning and Development For Early Childhood. Answer: It was only a decade ago that children were being considered as empty vessels. These vessels that are unworthy of close examination and individual respect. In the 20th century the theorists in the field of psychology and biology started concentrating more on early childhood education and development. These theories by the researchers help in thinking about the human development, learning and growth. These theories help in understanding how personalities form and it influences societies and the individuals. Educators everywhere are well aware of the Image of a child a phrase given by Reggio Emilia in his early childhood education philosophy where it refers to what adults, a group of people, or even a person understands, assumes and believes about the role of children in our society and education(Hewett, 2001). It is about how people take the children motivations, capabilities, agency, development, and purpose. Current theories in the field of early childhood education are based on the ories given by Piaget and Lev Vygotskys. Through these theories educators now understand that children are interested and want an active role in interacting with their surroundings. They make sense through their interaction with the people around them(Socolovsky C, 2013). In this essay we would learn about the key thinkers and their approaches in early childhood education. We will discuss about theories based on Constructivist model that are from Piaget and Vygotskys theories. Certainly who ever works with young children has come across the work of Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was a swiss scientist who formed theories about how humans develop knowledge(Obiols JE, 2009). Piaget is best known for his work in the theory of cognitive development which proposed that cognitive development is about changes in cognitive abilities and cognitive process. In his view the cognitive development of a child progresses through a series of stages. In these stages the child processes and takes in the new information. The process of taking in of the new information is called as Assimilation. He gave four stages of development that are Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete and formal operations. Sensorimotor stage is from the birth of the child to the age of two. This is the stage where the child learn about his environment and about himself through the reflex actions and motor skills(Rummel, 2008). These actions and skills derives from movement and sensation. For example a chil d understand that even when he cannot see his favorite toy or his parents, they still continue to exist. Piaget called this object permanence. This understanding of the environment teaches the aspect that he is separate from his environment. At this stage the child should be taught through sensorimotor system such as through soothing or stern voice, and showing a frown. Piaget also defined play as a childs effort to make the environmental stimuli match his own concepts. He explained how play in itself will not result in the formation of new cognitive functions but will help the children in practice the things that they have learned(Y., 2004). At this stage the babies rely on the behavioral schemes to understand their environment. Another stage is the preoperational stage which starts from the age when the child begins to talk to the age of 7. In this stage the child learns to point at objects and use symbols to represent things. The child is able to think about events and things tha t occur in the past. They still have difficulty conceptualizing time as his thinking is influenced how he would like things(Rickard KA, 1995). This fantasy makes him to assume that others are also seeing things according to his viewpoint. The children at this stage do not possess a fully developed cognitive functions. At this stage symbolic play helps as children are learning through investigation, imitating, and asking questions. Due to the sense of fantasy that prevails at this stage teaching should take into account the undeveloped sense of time and the fact that the child is changing things to fit his perspective. Teachers are advised to use body outlines, neutral words and toys that a child can touch and feel. In this stage language is a hallmark of development as they understand pretend and play. They would love to play mommy and daddy but are still unable to understand the view of another person. The next stage that Piaget explained was concrete stage that is from the first g rade to the early adolescence. During this stage accommodation occurs the most. Accommodation is when the child is changing and altering existing information in light of new addition or changes. The child starts to make rational judgements and think abstractly. During this stage the child needs to be given the opportunity to ask questions freely. Teachers should make sure that they explain and answer these questions so that it allows the child to manipulate information. The last stage is the formal operations that begins with adolescence. It is in this stage that cognition is in the final form as the child no longer requires concrete objects to come to a rational judgment. It is at this stage the deductive reasoning and hypothetical reasoning develops. They understand others viewpoint. Teachers should keep in mind that teenagers in this stage consider several perspectives. They are able to conceptualize ideas and are able to explain themselves. According to Piaget children are natur ally driven to explore their environment. They develop mastery and gain self confidence in exploring their environment. They are not passive learners. But teachers and other educators need to keep in mind that not all children are at a same cognitive stage. Children should be encouraged through group work and active participation. He explained how maturation, experience, social transmission, and Equilibration helps in cognitive development. As according to him there is no sense in teaching a child until they have reached a certain level of maturity. Many theorists believe that stages given by Piaget are controversial as the ages he suggests are inflexible. As many theorist believe that children do learn ahead of their maturity level and their level of understanding is based on the material and the approach taken to teach. (Morrison, 2004) Another theorist named Lev Vygotsky theory stresses the role of social interaction in cognitive development. According to him community play an important part in making meaning of things around us. He believed that children learn through active play. He is known to introduce scaffolding and zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development refers to the assistance or support from an adult that a child needs to learn something new. Scaffolding is the adjustments made with the supports in order to enhance the childs confidence and independence(Wilson A, 1992). He explained the term MKO, more knowledgeable other who has a better ability or understanding than the learner with respect to a concept, process or task. This MKO is not always a teacher or an adult but it could be a peer or an adult child in many situations. MKO is integrally important in his work as through this he explains what a child can achieve on their own (independently) and what they can achieve with guidance a nd encouragement from a MKO. He suggests that zone of proximal development is the area where the guidance should be given(Vygotsky, 1987). This allows the child to use their skills to reach a higher mental level. He suggests that teachers should use group and cooperative learning activities with peers to encourage less skillful children to develop with more skilled children in the zone of proximal development. He proposed how play can be used to help children to learn about social rules, self-regulation and about relationships with others(Hainselin M, 2017). His theory states that play facilitates cognitive development. As the child not only practices what they already know but they also learn new things. Vanderberg in the year 1986 discussed how Vygotskys theory unlike Piaget suggests that not only play reflect thoughts as said by Piaget but it also crates thought. Both Vygotskians and Piagets theories support play as a way to develop cognitive functions. As we can know from an example where a child pretends to be a fire fighter and dons a hat to rescue his teddy bear. Here he is practicing what he has learned previously about a fire fighter. Same when a child adds two squares to form a rectangle and announces to the teacher, he has actually created a new piece of knowledge based on his old knowledge. Both these examples support Piagets and Vygotskys theory respectively. Both Piaget and Lev Vygotskys theories provided the foundation for constructivism. However Piaget suggested that cognitive development occurs due to experimentation and observation whereas Vygotskys viewed it as a social process in which knowledge is gained through interaction with peers. In Piaget theory the educator or teacher played a limited role whereas in Vygotskys theory they played a central role. Harvard Psychologist Howard Gardner gave a theory Multiple Intelligences Theory that stated that there are seven ways or intelligences through which people understand. He also suggested that the traditional way of mapping intelligence through I.Q testing is limited(Gardner, 2006). These seven ways according to him were linguistic intelligence that is being word smart, logical mathematical intelligence that is being number and reasoning smart, spatial intelligence that is being picture smart, bodily kinesthetic intelligence that is being body smart, musical intelligence being music smart, interpersonal intelligence that is being people smart, intrapersonal intelligence that is being self-smart and lastly naturalist intelligence that is being nature smart(Gardner, 2011). He points out how our education system put their attention on the logical mathematical intelligence and linguistic intelligence the most but they do not concentrate much on other intelligences. What about the people wh o are gifted with other intelligences such as being a dancer, musicians, therapists, naturalists, entrepreneurs and artists. (Thomas, 2003)Unfortunately many kids in schools end up being called suffering from ADD (Attention Deficit disorder), branded as learning disabled and do not get much reinforcement as these education systems are addressing only logical mathematical and linguistic classrooms(Draper, 2002). He suggests how educators should be trained to deliver lessons in a variety of ways such as with cooperative learning, role play, music, inner refection, multimedia, and field trips. (Gardner, 2000),(Thomas, 2009) Therefore from these theories we can conclude that all children have a potential, preparedness and curiosity they possess in learning on their own and in negotiating with the surroundings while learning. They should be considered as active participants in their learning process as contributing members. Image of the child is all about a child being full of knowledge, competent, having potential and curious in connecting to his or her surroundings. Educators should be aware about the construct and potentials of the children and should provide the environment that can help them to explore. People may not be aware that they hold an image for a child as it develops through their experiences of culture and society(Johnson, 2008). But as educators it is crucial to reflect on that image that they hold as their perspectives would affect their decisions in the classrooms. Research has revealed that children learn best when they are actively engaging with the environment around them. They learn through interactions from peers, objects and adults. Therefore a educators image of a child can inadvertently distract or support a child from the goal of learning. Through these theories we know that educators around the world are urged to find ways to value, integrate and incorporate variety of activities and possibilities to learn. They should create and encourage an atmosphere where they can recognize the depth of a childs knowledge. Bibliography Draper, R. J. (2002). School mathematics reform, constructivism, and literacy: A case for literacy instruction in the reform-oriented math classroom. Journal of Adolescent Adult Literacy, 520-529. Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic. Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic. Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic. Hainselin M, P. L.-C. (2017). Hey Teacher, Don't Leave Them Kids Alone: Action Is Better for Memory than Reading. Front Psychol, 8. Hewett, V. M. (2001). Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 95100. Johnson, J. A. (2008). Foundations of American education: Perspectives on education in a changing world. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc. Morrison, G. R. (2004). Design effective instruction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley JosseyBass. Obiols JE, B. G. (2009). The historical roots of Theory of Mind: the work of James Mark Baldwin. Hist Psychiatry, 377-92. Rickard KA, G. D. (1995). The play approach to learning in the context of families and schools: an alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. J Am Diet Assoc, 1121-6. Rummel, E. (2008). Constructing cognition. American Scientist, 80-82. Socolovsky C, M. C. (2013). Evaluating the role of key learning theories in ECHO: a telehealth educational program for primary care providers. Prog Community Health Partnersh, 361-8. Thomas, A. (2003). The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. Thomas, A. (2009). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd Edition. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech. New York: Plenum Press. Wilson A, W. L. (1992). An investigation into some implications of a Vygotskian perspective on the origins of mind: psychoanalysis and Vygotskian psychology, Part I. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 349-79. Y., H. (2004). He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936. Hist Psycho, 20-44.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The gestalt theory free essay sample

The Gestalt theory is a complex but rather interesting theory that I will be writing about in this essay. For this essay, I will be looking for the different parts of the Gestalt theory. Before that, I will find where the name â€Å"Gestalt† even means and originated from. I will also find out who discovered the theory. I will describe the theory and provide background information on the theory. I will describe how the theory is exhibited. I will also explain whether I agree with this theory. There are also plenty of examples of each kind of point in the Gestalt theory. Although these examples are for visual purposes, there are famous ones that I will be talking about which can be seen on the Internet. Each principle has its own pictures as examples. One way the Gestalt theory is in use is when us see the pictures that are made for the sole purpose of the gestalt theory. We will write a custom essay sample on The gestalt theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Gestalt Theory has many principles to it and I am going to go over all of them, including definitions and how your brain perceives that message. There are major principles of the Gestalt theory, which make up what the theory means. The Gestalt theory â€Å"looks at the human mind and the behavior as a whole. † (Cherry, 2013). The Gestalt theory was originated by Max Wertheimer, but influenced by other thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, Ernest Mach and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Cherry, 2013). Wertheimer said, There are wholes, the behavior of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine the nature of such wholes (Wertheimer, 1924). This quote is explaining when you try to put a missing piece in its place and you know where it goes because you have seen the full figure before. The Gestalt theory got its name by definition. Gestalt in German means â€Å"whole† which is the definition of the theory. This is why the theory was named the â€Å"Gestalt theory. † Christian Von Ehrenfels was the one who originated the name Gestalt for the theory (Boeree, 2000). Christian was a teacher to the founder of the Gestalt theory, Max Wertheimer (Boeree, 2000). So the student became the teacher in the end because Christian was the one who originated the theory and Max is the one who ends up finishing the theory. Max started the beginning of his studies by studying law and going to law school (Boeree, 2000). He never was interested in it as much as he was in psychology (Boeree, 2000). â€Å"At Frankfurt, his former teacher Friedrich Schumann, now there as well, gave him the use of a tachistoscope to study the effect. His first subjects were two younger assistants, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka. They would become his lifelong partners† (Boeree, 2000). Wolfgang and Koffka will play their parts into helping Max solve and explain this theory that he has been interested in. Max wrote his paper on the perception of movement, and then was offered a job as a lectureship at the University of Frankfurt (Boeree, 2000). He eventually became an assistant professor there and in a couple of years moved up and was a professor for his own class (Boeree, 2000). He taught Psychology at his years at Frankfurt and spread his knowledge to the young minds of Frankfurt. While Germany was going through its tough times in the war, Frankfurt escaped to the United States and began teaching for Social Research School in New York City (Boeree, 2000). He wrote a book called, â€Å"Productive Thinking† which was the most known book he has written (Boeree, 2000). Wolfgang and Max met through the University of Frankfurt in which they were assistants for a Psychological Institute for Frankfurt (Boeree, 2000). † In 1922, he became the chair and director of the psychology lab at the University of Berlin, where he stayed until 1935. During that time, in 1929, he wrote Gestalt Psychology† (Boeree, 2000). As the quote has it, Wolfgang had met and discussed the gestalt theories together and it resulted into Wolfgang publishing a book on the Gestalt Theory. The final founder of the Gestalt Theory is Kurt Koffka. Kurt â€Å"he wrote an article for Psychological Bulletin which introduced the Gestalt program to readers in the U. S† (Boeree, 2000). So after these three best friends met at the University of Frankfurt and discussed the Gestalt Theory. They went their separate ways to spread the theory to young and up and coming future of psychologists. The Gestalt theory has many different laws; the first one that I will be talking about is the Figure and Ground law. â€Å"The terms figure and ground explain how we use elements of the scene which are similar in appearance and shape and group them together as a whole. Similar elements (figure) are contrasted with dissimilar elements (ground) to give the impression of a whole† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). A good example of this is the Macintosh logo (Soegaard, 2005). A terrible example of this is when you see an animal that blends into the environment with the use of camouflage. If there is a chameleon on a brown branch, it will turn brown. If u can’t see the figure separated from the ground, then you see them as a whole. Second, is the law of Similarity. â€Å"The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). In the preferences window of a windows computer, the grey color background binds the first items together (Soegaard, 2005). The next law I would like to talk about is the law of Proximity. â€Å"The Gestalt law of proximity states that objects or shapes that are close to one another appear to form groups. Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will appear as a group if they are close together† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). A great example of this law is the MTV sign (Soegaard, 2005). The TV part of the channel is part of the M which puts the law of Similarity in action. Another law I would want to explain is closure. â€Å"The satisfaction of a pattern encoded, as it were, into the brain, thus triggering recognition of the stimulus. This can involve the brains provision of missing details thought to be a part of a potential pattern, or, once closure is achieved, the elimination of details unnecessary to establish a pattern match† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this law is the IBM logo (Soegaard, 2005). The fifth law I would like to explain is the law of Continuity. â€Å"The edge of one shape will continue into the space and meet up with other shapes or the edge of the picture plane† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this would be, when you are making a graph in for math class and the lines of the graph are perpendicular and continuous (Soegaard, 2005). The last law I would like to talk about is the law of Symmetry. â€Å"Symmetry states that the viewer should not be given the impression that something is out of balance, or missing, or wrong† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this in action is when you look at the CSC Finland’s logo (Soegaard, 2005). I personally agree with this theory because it has many different laws that explain so much that happen in the world. Especially when there are many different real life examples that have been influenced by these laws. There are many real life examples of these laws that I have known but not actually put under the category of the Gestalt Theory. There are many things that I have seen which represent all these law when I was a kid and didn’t understand any of this. It blows my mind how I am just learning about this now during my young adult life. So with all the facts given here on this essay, I conclude that I agree with this theory.

Monday, March 16, 2020

An Introductory History of Zambia

An Introductory History of Zambia The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola Escaping the Mfecane In the 19th century, there was an additional influx by Ngoni peoples from the south escaping the Mfecane. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy. David Livingstone at the Zambezi Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him. Northern Rhodesia a British Protectorate In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate. A Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control. The Road to Independence A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesias secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. A Troubled Start for the Republic of Zambia On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Surrounded by Oppression Three of Zambias neighbors – Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola- remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesias white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambias sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. Supporting Nationalist Movements in Southern Africa During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa Peoples Organization (SWAPO). The Struggle Against Poverty Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambias borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the countrys requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola. By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambias problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambias strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia. In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambias principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambias per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world. Source Text from Public Domain material, US Department of State Background Notes.