Tuesday, May 19, 2020

How Parents Affect Their Children s Behaviors, Reactions,...

Parents can influence their children’s behaviors, reactions, and thoughts in many ways. Among them is the style of parenting employed, whether they are strict, negligent, supportive or uncaring. The way they speak to their children will be determined by the parenting style, demanding obedience without question, explaining the rules, being emotionally abusive or physically abusive. Abuse of any kind can leave lasting impressions on a child throughout their lifespan. Peers can also influence behavior and thoughts by being supportive and welcoming or by bullying or rejecting a child due to their sexuality, circumstances, or ideas. â€Å"The adolescent brain is often likened to a car with a fully functioning gas pedal (the reward system) but weak brakes (the prefrontal cortex).† (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014, p.8) While adolescents are individuals with their own minds and ability to control their actions, parents and peers influence adolescent behavior and thought in a multitude of different ways, from gender roles they are expected to fill, showing them how temperament affects behavior and interaction with peers and authority figures, and risky behaviors such as drinking and driving, using drugs, and having unprotected sex. Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural theory of cognitive development focuses on the social influences surrounding an individual throughout their lifespan, birth through death. It â€Å"places a central focus on social interaction as a medium in which childrenShow MoreRelatedWhile The Rate Of Divorce Has Rapidly Increased In Recent1659 Words   |  7 Pageshave children and divorce is an impactful event that can cause life lasting effects on children. The effects that divorce has on children can cause serious psychological issues that may form and develop over time from toddlers into the adolescent stage of their lives. The divorce itself does not affect children in a negative way. The effects result more often from the feeling of uncertainty of what is going to happen after the divorce, from the level of conflict between the parents and from how theRead MoreDivorce And Its Effect On Children998 Words   |  4 Pagesdivorce, there are many children that have to go through this situation at a very young age. Children of ages three to six have a difficult time understanding why their parents are splitting up. They are still at a young age where they do not accept the fact that their parents are no longer going to be together. Kids have the hardest time when the parents did not argue in front of them because the divorce comes out of the blue. Children like to fantasize that their parents will reunite to help copeRead MoreTrauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ( Tf Cbt )882 Words   |  4 PagesTF-CBT is an evidenced-based treatment approach for children and adolescents experiencing trauma-related mental and/or behavioral health difficulties. The treatment approach is applicable to a variety of clients as it is designed to be used with children ages three to eighteen (Lawson Quinn, 2013). TF-CBT utilizes individual and family sessions to reduce negative emotional and behavioral responses from youth who have experienced a traumatic event(s) (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2012). FurthermoreRead MoreThe Three Developmental Processes Are Biological1361 Words   |  6 Pagesand intellectual capacities, along with the beginnings of language. And lastly, it involves the Socioemotional process, because this period is a time when the child develops its first ties or attachments with others. While this is just one example of how the developmental processes are tied to and influence the periods of development, the overlapping of these dynamics are found in each process. Periods of Child Development †¢ The Prenatal Period: This period is in the time frame from conception to birthRead MoreBullying And Its Effects On Students895 Words   |  4 Pagesvictims. Despite of the common assumption that bullying is a normal part of children in their early years, the consequences can strongly effect on students well-being. Lasting for years or even the whole life, it makes the victim feel frustrated, despondent, useless, fearful or isolated. Apparently, it is crucial to push the awareness of the meaning of the word bully, why it should be on the top concerned list among parents, teachers and the bullied themselves. No one knows exactly whenRead MoreWhy Is Parenting So Difficult?956 Words   |  4 PagesWhy is parenting so difficult? Shouldn’t a mother be ‘hardwired’ into knowing how to raise an infant? First of all, we can not classify one universal way of parenting as there is no ‘one right way of doing it’. Each and every mother should have the confidence in trusting her nurturing instincts and disregard any advice from others. â€Å"If your younger child is headed into danger, into traffic, you can grab them and hold them, but you should under no circumstances hit them.† ++++++ Good parenting isRead MoreTraditional and Nontraditional Mothers Communication with Theri Daughters and Sons863 Words   |  3 Pagesthe roles of males and females will relate to their children in a less â€Å"sex-role differentiated† or sexist manner than traditional mothers. The subjects for this study included 40 middleclass mother-child pairs in a suburb an community. The mothers were contacted by phone and asked to be a part of a study that would observer their interaction at home. A scale called â€Å"Spence and Helmeich Attitude toward Woman† was used to measure the mother’s thoughts on male superiority, equal opportunity, sex and socialRead MoreSeparation Anxiety And Its Effects On Children1560 Words   |  7 Pagesbut obsessive. This is an example of separation anxiety, a developmental phase that most children go through during their early years. Separation anxiety is most likely to occur in child with a family history of anxiety/depression, child who are shy, children who have a lack of appropriate parental interaction, and overprotective parents. Separation anxiety is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children affecting one out of twenty. It is a developmental stage during which the child experiencesRead MoreMedia Violence : A Substantial Contributor Of Children s Behavior848 Words   |  4 PagesSubstantial Contributor of Children’s Behavior Nowadays, there are new and upgraded forms of media we can find everywhere. These media are watched by mostly children in their everyday lives. Media, such as violent movies, video games and even cartoons, it contains horrifying graphic pictures that can contribute to children growing up experiences. One more thing, a lot of news existed in the television that is significantly related to violence. Even some children exposed to those media has been alreadyRead MoreEmotional or Behavioral Disorders1715 Words   |  7 PagesIts much easier to identify disordered behaviors than it is to define and classify their types and causes. Children with EBD experience a significant number of academic, behavioral, and interpersonal challenges that can adversely affect not only themselves, but teachers, peers, parents, and others who are involved with the child is some capacity (Gresham, Hunter, Corwin, Fischer, 2013). Although it is easy to recognize aggressive or withdrawn behaviors exhibited by students with EBD, it is difficult

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Contemporary Perspectives of Learning and Development For Early Childh

Question: Discuss about theContemporary Perspectives of Learning and Development For Early Childhood. Answer: It was only a decade ago that children were being considered as empty vessels. These vessels that are unworthy of close examination and individual respect. In the 20th century the theorists in the field of psychology and biology started concentrating more on early childhood education and development. These theories by the researchers help in thinking about the human development, learning and growth. These theories help in understanding how personalities form and it influences societies and the individuals. Educators everywhere are well aware of the Image of a child a phrase given by Reggio Emilia in his early childhood education philosophy where it refers to what adults, a group of people, or even a person understands, assumes and believes about the role of children in our society and education(Hewett, 2001). It is about how people take the children motivations, capabilities, agency, development, and purpose. Current theories in the field of early childhood education are based on the ories given by Piaget and Lev Vygotskys. Through these theories educators now understand that children are interested and want an active role in interacting with their surroundings. They make sense through their interaction with the people around them(Socolovsky C, 2013). In this essay we would learn about the key thinkers and their approaches in early childhood education. We will discuss about theories based on Constructivist model that are from Piaget and Vygotskys theories. Certainly who ever works with young children has come across the work of Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was a swiss scientist who formed theories about how humans develop knowledge(Obiols JE, 2009). Piaget is best known for his work in the theory of cognitive development which proposed that cognitive development is about changes in cognitive abilities and cognitive process. In his view the cognitive development of a child progresses through a series of stages. In these stages the child processes and takes in the new information. The process of taking in of the new information is called as Assimilation. He gave four stages of development that are Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete and formal operations. Sensorimotor stage is from the birth of the child to the age of two. This is the stage where the child learn about his environment and about himself through the reflex actions and motor skills(Rummel, 2008). These actions and skills derives from movement and sensation. For example a chil d understand that even when he cannot see his favorite toy or his parents, they still continue to exist. Piaget called this object permanence. This understanding of the environment teaches the aspect that he is separate from his environment. At this stage the child should be taught through sensorimotor system such as through soothing or stern voice, and showing a frown. Piaget also defined play as a childs effort to make the environmental stimuli match his own concepts. He explained how play in itself will not result in the formation of new cognitive functions but will help the children in practice the things that they have learned(Y., 2004). At this stage the babies rely on the behavioral schemes to understand their environment. Another stage is the preoperational stage which starts from the age when the child begins to talk to the age of 7. In this stage the child learns to point at objects and use symbols to represent things. The child is able to think about events and things tha t occur in the past. They still have difficulty conceptualizing time as his thinking is influenced how he would like things(Rickard KA, 1995). This fantasy makes him to assume that others are also seeing things according to his viewpoint. The children at this stage do not possess a fully developed cognitive functions. At this stage symbolic play helps as children are learning through investigation, imitating, and asking questions. Due to the sense of fantasy that prevails at this stage teaching should take into account the undeveloped sense of time and the fact that the child is changing things to fit his perspective. Teachers are advised to use body outlines, neutral words and toys that a child can touch and feel. In this stage language is a hallmark of development as they understand pretend and play. They would love to play mommy and daddy but are still unable to understand the view of another person. The next stage that Piaget explained was concrete stage that is from the first g rade to the early adolescence. During this stage accommodation occurs the most. Accommodation is when the child is changing and altering existing information in light of new addition or changes. The child starts to make rational judgements and think abstractly. During this stage the child needs to be given the opportunity to ask questions freely. Teachers should make sure that they explain and answer these questions so that it allows the child to manipulate information. The last stage is the formal operations that begins with adolescence. It is in this stage that cognition is in the final form as the child no longer requires concrete objects to come to a rational judgment. It is at this stage the deductive reasoning and hypothetical reasoning develops. They understand others viewpoint. Teachers should keep in mind that teenagers in this stage consider several perspectives. They are able to conceptualize ideas and are able to explain themselves. According to Piaget children are natur ally driven to explore their environment. They develop mastery and gain self confidence in exploring their environment. They are not passive learners. But teachers and other educators need to keep in mind that not all children are at a same cognitive stage. Children should be encouraged through group work and active participation. He explained how maturation, experience, social transmission, and Equilibration helps in cognitive development. As according to him there is no sense in teaching a child until they have reached a certain level of maturity. Many theorists believe that stages given by Piaget are controversial as the ages he suggests are inflexible. As many theorist believe that children do learn ahead of their maturity level and their level of understanding is based on the material and the approach taken to teach. (Morrison, 2004) Another theorist named Lev Vygotsky theory stresses the role of social interaction in cognitive development. According to him community play an important part in making meaning of things around us. He believed that children learn through active play. He is known to introduce scaffolding and zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development refers to the assistance or support from an adult that a child needs to learn something new. Scaffolding is the adjustments made with the supports in order to enhance the childs confidence and independence(Wilson A, 1992). He explained the term MKO, more knowledgeable other who has a better ability or understanding than the learner with respect to a concept, process or task. This MKO is not always a teacher or an adult but it could be a peer or an adult child in many situations. MKO is integrally important in his work as through this he explains what a child can achieve on their own (independently) and what they can achieve with guidance a nd encouragement from a MKO. He suggests that zone of proximal development is the area where the guidance should be given(Vygotsky, 1987). This allows the child to use their skills to reach a higher mental level. He suggests that teachers should use group and cooperative learning activities with peers to encourage less skillful children to develop with more skilled children in the zone of proximal development. He proposed how play can be used to help children to learn about social rules, self-regulation and about relationships with others(Hainselin M, 2017). His theory states that play facilitates cognitive development. As the child not only practices what they already know but they also learn new things. Vanderberg in the year 1986 discussed how Vygotskys theory unlike Piaget suggests that not only play reflect thoughts as said by Piaget but it also crates thought. Both Vygotskians and Piagets theories support play as a way to develop cognitive functions. As we can know from an example where a child pretends to be a fire fighter and dons a hat to rescue his teddy bear. Here he is practicing what he has learned previously about a fire fighter. Same when a child adds two squares to form a rectangle and announces to the teacher, he has actually created a new piece of knowledge based on his old knowledge. Both these examples support Piagets and Vygotskys theory respectively. Both Piaget and Lev Vygotskys theories provided the foundation for constructivism. However Piaget suggested that cognitive development occurs due to experimentation and observation whereas Vygotskys viewed it as a social process in which knowledge is gained through interaction with peers. In Piaget theory the educator or teacher played a limited role whereas in Vygotskys theory they played a central role. Harvard Psychologist Howard Gardner gave a theory Multiple Intelligences Theory that stated that there are seven ways or intelligences through which people understand. He also suggested that the traditional way of mapping intelligence through I.Q testing is limited(Gardner, 2006). These seven ways according to him were linguistic intelligence that is being word smart, logical mathematical intelligence that is being number and reasoning smart, spatial intelligence that is being picture smart, bodily kinesthetic intelligence that is being body smart, musical intelligence being music smart, interpersonal intelligence that is being people smart, intrapersonal intelligence that is being self-smart and lastly naturalist intelligence that is being nature smart(Gardner, 2011). He points out how our education system put their attention on the logical mathematical intelligence and linguistic intelligence the most but they do not concentrate much on other intelligences. What about the people wh o are gifted with other intelligences such as being a dancer, musicians, therapists, naturalists, entrepreneurs and artists. (Thomas, 2003)Unfortunately many kids in schools end up being called suffering from ADD (Attention Deficit disorder), branded as learning disabled and do not get much reinforcement as these education systems are addressing only logical mathematical and linguistic classrooms(Draper, 2002). He suggests how educators should be trained to deliver lessons in a variety of ways such as with cooperative learning, role play, music, inner refection, multimedia, and field trips. (Gardner, 2000),(Thomas, 2009) Therefore from these theories we can conclude that all children have a potential, preparedness and curiosity they possess in learning on their own and in negotiating with the surroundings while learning. They should be considered as active participants in their learning process as contributing members. Image of the child is all about a child being full of knowledge, competent, having potential and curious in connecting to his or her surroundings. Educators should be aware about the construct and potentials of the children and should provide the environment that can help them to explore. People may not be aware that they hold an image for a child as it develops through their experiences of culture and society(Johnson, 2008). But as educators it is crucial to reflect on that image that they hold as their perspectives would affect their decisions in the classrooms. Research has revealed that children learn best when they are actively engaging with the environment around them. They learn through interactions from peers, objects and adults. Therefore a educators image of a child can inadvertently distract or support a child from the goal of learning. Through these theories we know that educators around the world are urged to find ways to value, integrate and incorporate variety of activities and possibilities to learn. They should create and encourage an atmosphere where they can recognize the depth of a childs knowledge. Bibliography Draper, R. J. (2002). School mathematics reform, constructivism, and literacy: A case for literacy instruction in the reform-oriented math classroom. Journal of Adolescent Adult Literacy, 520-529. Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic. Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic. Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic. Hainselin M, P. L.-C. (2017). Hey Teacher, Don't Leave Them Kids Alone: Action Is Better for Memory than Reading. Front Psychol, 8. Hewett, V. M. (2001). Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 95100. Johnson, J. A. (2008). Foundations of American education: Perspectives on education in a changing world. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc. Morrison, G. R. (2004). Design effective instruction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley JosseyBass. Obiols JE, B. G. (2009). The historical roots of Theory of Mind: the work of James Mark Baldwin. Hist Psychiatry, 377-92. Rickard KA, G. D. (1995). The play approach to learning in the context of families and schools: an alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. J Am Diet Assoc, 1121-6. Rummel, E. (2008). Constructing cognition. American Scientist, 80-82. Socolovsky C, M. C. (2013). Evaluating the role of key learning theories in ECHO: a telehealth educational program for primary care providers. Prog Community Health Partnersh, 361-8. Thomas, A. (2003). The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. Thomas, A. (2009). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd Edition. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech. New York: Plenum Press. Wilson A, W. L. (1992). An investigation into some implications of a Vygotskian perspective on the origins of mind: psychoanalysis and Vygotskian psychology, Part I. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 349-79. Y., H. (2004). He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936. Hist Psycho, 20-44.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The gestalt theory free essay sample

The Gestalt theory is a complex but rather interesting theory that I will be writing about in this essay. For this essay, I will be looking for the different parts of the Gestalt theory. Before that, I will find where the name â€Å"Gestalt† even means and originated from. I will also find out who discovered the theory. I will describe the theory and provide background information on the theory. I will describe how the theory is exhibited. I will also explain whether I agree with this theory. There are also plenty of examples of each kind of point in the Gestalt theory. Although these examples are for visual purposes, there are famous ones that I will be talking about which can be seen on the Internet. Each principle has its own pictures as examples. One way the Gestalt theory is in use is when us see the pictures that are made for the sole purpose of the gestalt theory. We will write a custom essay sample on The gestalt theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Gestalt Theory has many principles to it and I am going to go over all of them, including definitions and how your brain perceives that message. There are major principles of the Gestalt theory, which make up what the theory means. The Gestalt theory â€Å"looks at the human mind and the behavior as a whole. † (Cherry, 2013). The Gestalt theory was originated by Max Wertheimer, but influenced by other thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, Ernest Mach and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Cherry, 2013). Wertheimer said, There are wholes, the behavior of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves determined by the intrinsic nature of the whole. It is the hope of Gestalt theory to determine the nature of such wholes (Wertheimer, 1924). This quote is explaining when you try to put a missing piece in its place and you know where it goes because you have seen the full figure before. The Gestalt theory got its name by definition. Gestalt in German means â€Å"whole† which is the definition of the theory. This is why the theory was named the â€Å"Gestalt theory. † Christian Von Ehrenfels was the one who originated the name Gestalt for the theory (Boeree, 2000). Christian was a teacher to the founder of the Gestalt theory, Max Wertheimer (Boeree, 2000). So the student became the teacher in the end because Christian was the one who originated the theory and Max is the one who ends up finishing the theory. Max started the beginning of his studies by studying law and going to law school (Boeree, 2000). He never was interested in it as much as he was in psychology (Boeree, 2000). â€Å"At Frankfurt, his former teacher Friedrich Schumann, now there as well, gave him the use of a tachistoscope to study the effect. His first subjects were two younger assistants, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka. They would become his lifelong partners† (Boeree, 2000). Wolfgang and Koffka will play their parts into helping Max solve and explain this theory that he has been interested in. Max wrote his paper on the perception of movement, and then was offered a job as a lectureship at the University of Frankfurt (Boeree, 2000). He eventually became an assistant professor there and in a couple of years moved up and was a professor for his own class (Boeree, 2000). He taught Psychology at his years at Frankfurt and spread his knowledge to the young minds of Frankfurt. While Germany was going through its tough times in the war, Frankfurt escaped to the United States and began teaching for Social Research School in New York City (Boeree, 2000). He wrote a book called, â€Å"Productive Thinking† which was the most known book he has written (Boeree, 2000). Wolfgang and Max met through the University of Frankfurt in which they were assistants for a Psychological Institute for Frankfurt (Boeree, 2000). † In 1922, he became the chair and director of the psychology lab at the University of Berlin, where he stayed until 1935. During that time, in 1929, he wrote Gestalt Psychology† (Boeree, 2000). As the quote has it, Wolfgang had met and discussed the gestalt theories together and it resulted into Wolfgang publishing a book on the Gestalt Theory. The final founder of the Gestalt Theory is Kurt Koffka. Kurt â€Å"he wrote an article for Psychological Bulletin which introduced the Gestalt program to readers in the U. S† (Boeree, 2000). So after these three best friends met at the University of Frankfurt and discussed the Gestalt Theory. They went their separate ways to spread the theory to young and up and coming future of psychologists. The Gestalt theory has many different laws; the first one that I will be talking about is the Figure and Ground law. â€Å"The terms figure and ground explain how we use elements of the scene which are similar in appearance and shape and group them together as a whole. Similar elements (figure) are contrasted with dissimilar elements (ground) to give the impression of a whole† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). A good example of this is the Macintosh logo (Soegaard, 2005). A terrible example of this is when you see an animal that blends into the environment with the use of camouflage. If there is a chameleon on a brown branch, it will turn brown. If u can’t see the figure separated from the ground, then you see them as a whole. Second, is the law of Similarity. â€Å"The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). In the preferences window of a windows computer, the grey color background binds the first items together (Soegaard, 2005). The next law I would like to talk about is the law of Proximity. â€Å"The Gestalt law of proximity states that objects or shapes that are close to one another appear to form groups. Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will appear as a group if they are close together† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). A great example of this law is the MTV sign (Soegaard, 2005). The TV part of the channel is part of the M which puts the law of Similarity in action. Another law I would want to explain is closure. â€Å"The satisfaction of a pattern encoded, as it were, into the brain, thus triggering recognition of the stimulus. This can involve the brains provision of missing details thought to be a part of a potential pattern, or, once closure is achieved, the elimination of details unnecessary to establish a pattern match† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this law is the IBM logo (Soegaard, 2005). The fifth law I would like to explain is the law of Continuity. â€Å"The edge of one shape will continue into the space and meet up with other shapes or the edge of the picture plane† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this would be, when you are making a graph in for math class and the lines of the graph are perpendicular and continuous (Soegaard, 2005). The last law I would like to talk about is the law of Symmetry. â€Å"Symmetry states that the viewer should not be given the impression that something is out of balance, or missing, or wrong† (â€Å"Gestalt Principles†, 1999). An example of this in action is when you look at the CSC Finland’s logo (Soegaard, 2005). I personally agree with this theory because it has many different laws that explain so much that happen in the world. Especially when there are many different real life examples that have been influenced by these laws. There are many real life examples of these laws that I have known but not actually put under the category of the Gestalt Theory. There are many things that I have seen which represent all these law when I was a kid and didn’t understand any of this. It blows my mind how I am just learning about this now during my young adult life. So with all the facts given here on this essay, I conclude that I agree with this theory.

Monday, March 16, 2020

An Introductory History of Zambia

An Introductory History of Zambia The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola Escaping the Mfecane In the 19th century, there was an additional influx by Ngoni peoples from the south escaping the Mfecane. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy. David Livingstone at the Zambezi Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him. Northern Rhodesia a British Protectorate In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate. A Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control. The Road to Independence A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesias secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. A Troubled Start for the Republic of Zambia On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964. At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Surrounded by Oppression Three of Zambias neighbors – Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola- remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesias white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambias sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. Supporting Nationalist Movements in Southern Africa During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa Peoples Organization (SWAPO). The Struggle Against Poverty Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambias borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the countrys requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola. By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambias problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambias strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia. In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambias principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambias per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world. Source Text from Public Domain material, US Department of State Background Notes.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Abnormal Psychology Critique

Sheila Laine Dela Paz Date submitted : January 30, 2012 ABSTRACT This study sought to understand how functional status, impairment level, and use of assistive devices change over 3 years for older adults with depressive symptoms. I further explored factors that predict change in severity of depressive symptoms. During 3 years, participants experienced ncreased physical disability, a decline in severity of depressive symptoms, and an increase in the total number of assistive devices owned. A significant number of older adults will experience a decrease in depressive symptoms over 3 years, despite an increase in physical disability. They also will obtain more assistive devices as they age. The specific issue that stands out in the journal is relative to the various changes in impairment level, functional status and use of some suggested assistive devices that could be used by older people who suffer symptoms of depression. I do very much agree how the author ouched the subject and expl ained depression among the older people. There is nothing from the journal article that I disagree about. The points presented by the author about the existence of this feeling of depression among the older people are true and satisfactory. The second journal that I have, Suicide In Older Adults : Nursing Assessment Of Suicide by Linda Garand, PhD, APRN, BC, Ann M. Mitchell, PhD, RN, AHN, BC, Ann Dietrick, MSN, APRN, BC, Sophia P. Hijjawi, BSN, RN, and Di Pan, BSN, RN, is somewhat parallel to my first journal. This second article talks about suicide in older adults. It is being discussed here that suicide and attempted suicide is associated with depression, psychosis and substance abuse among younger individuals, yet among older adults, depression and co morbid medical conditions play important contributory roles. Same as what was being talked about in the first article. The issue that attracts my attention is on the prevalence of suicidal behaviors in older adults and lays a foundation for understanding the role of risk factors in the prevention of suicide. Just like in the first article, the issue focuses more on depression on older adults. It has been proven that the older adults are the one that easily get depressed than the younger ones. Just as no single factor is universally causal, no single intervention will prevent all suicides. The multi-dimensionality of suicide presents great challenges, but also has important implications for prevention. Suicide in late life must be understood as a complex combination of interactive effects in which mood disorders take a central role. Our ability to more precisely target preventive interventions will hinge on a better understanding of those relationships. Until then, urses and others must be diligent in the identification of older adults at risk for suicide. Subgroups of older adults at high risk for suicide include those with depressive illnesses, previous suicide attempts, physical illnesses, and those who are socially isolated. Therefore I can say, that major depression is the most common diagnosis in older adults (of both sexes) who attempt or complete suicide. This stud y used data from Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Aging Consumer Assessment Study, a longitudinal study of coping strategies of elders with disabilities. Seventy-three participants with depressive symptoms were interviewed at baseline and 3 years later. I believe that the author used the most appropriate method because they have come about with good results. And thus, there is no other appropriate or suitable way to test the depressive symptoms of older people than having a study or conducting a survey on a rehabilitation center. For me, application through conducting tests would be the best idea to prove whether the issue is correct or not. The journal article fully and clearly explains what depression is all about that affects the lder people. It is notable that depression happens to some people more especially the old ones who are said to be prone to the disorder. Upon relating the topic to my course, such situation is under the field of Abnormal Psychology. The field is of great importance to students taking up Psychology course like me who would desire to pursue the field of Clinical Psychology. As depression is common and could happen to everyone, this study is applicable to all. Through it, we shall have a clear idea of the appropriate way to do if ever we meet or experience a feeling of depression. Above all things, this will be a great help to me who would really like to be a successful Clinical Psychologist in the future. REFERENCES Mann, William C. , et al. â€Å"Changes in impairment level, functional status, and use of assistive devices by older people with depressive symptoms. †Ã‚  AJOT: American Journal of Occupational Therapy  62. 1 (2008): 9+. InfoTrac Custom 100 Titles. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. Document URL http://find. galegroup. com/gtx/infomark. do? source=galesrcprod=SP00prodId=SPJ. SP00u serGroupName=phmtctabID=T002docId=A208219498type=retrievecontentSet=IAC- Documentsversion=1. 0 Agree, E. , Freedman, V. (2003). A comparison of assistive technology and personal care in alleviating disability and unmet need. Gerontologist, 43, 335-344. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Bergner, M. , Bobbitt, R. , Pollard, W. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Validation of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 57-67. Bradburn, N. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine. Center for Functional Assessment Research. 1990). Guide for use of the Uniform Data Set for Medical Rehabilitation (Version 3. 1). Buffalo, NY: Author. Chen, T. Y. , Mann, W. C. , Tomita, M. , Nochajski, S. (2000). Caregiver involvement in the use of assistive devices by frail older persons. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 179- 199. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004). Older Americans 2004: K ey indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Fillenbaum, G. G. (1988). Multidimensional functional assessment of older adults: The Duke Older American Resources and Services procedures. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fillenbaum, G. G. , Smyer, M. A. (1981). The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 428-434. Folstein, M. , Folstein, S. E. , McHugh, P. (1975). â€Å"Mini-Mental State†: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189- 198. Gilson, B. S. , Gilson, J. S. , Bergner, M. , Bobbit, R. A. , Kressel, S. , Pollard, W. E. , et al. (1975). The Sickness Impact Profile: Development of an outcome measure of health care. American Journal of Public Health, 65, 1304-1325. Hamilton, B. , Granger, C. , Sherwin, F. , Zielenzy, M. , Tashman, J. (1987). A uniform national data system for medical rehabilitation. In M. Fuhrer (Ed. ), Rehabilitation outcomes: Analysis and measurement (pp. 137-147). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurologic Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. Hoenig, H. , Taylor, D. , Sloan, F. (2003). Does assistive technology substitute for personal assistance among the disabled elderly? American Journal of Public Health, 93, 330-337. Kruskal, W. , Wallis, W. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 583-621. Lebowitz, B. , Pearson, J. , Schneider, L. , Reynolds, C. , Alexopoulos, G. , Bruce, M. , et al. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1186-1190. Lenze, E. , Schulz, R. , Matire, L. , Zdaniuk, B. , Glass, T. , Kop, W. , et al. (2005). The course of functional decline in older people with persistently elevated depressive symptoms: Longitudinal findings from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53, 569-575. Lubin, B. (1967). Manual for the Depression Adjective Check Lists. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Mann, W. , Llanes, C. , Justiss, M. , Tomita, M. (2004). Frail older adults’ self-report of their most important assistive device. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research: Occupation, Participation, and Health, 24, 4-12. Mann, W. , Ottenbacher, K. , Fraas, L. , Tomita, M. , ; Granger, C. (1999). Effectiveness of assistive technology and environmental interventions in maintaining independence and reducing home care costs for the frail elderly. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, 210-217. Noel, P. , Williams, J. , Unutzer, J. , Worchel, J. , Lee, S. , Cornell, J. , et al. (2004). Depression and comorbid illness in elderly primary care patients: Impact on multiple domains of health status and well-being. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 555-562. Ottenbacher, K. , Mann, W. , Granger, C. , Tomita, M. , Hurren, D. , ; Charvat, B. (1994). Inter- rater agreement and stability of functional assessment in the community-based elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1297-1301. Pollak, N. , Rheult, W. , ; Stoecker, J. 1996). Reliability and validity of the FIM for persons aged 80 years and above from a multilevel continuing care retirement community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1056-1061. Pollard, W. , Bobbitt, R. , Bergner, M. , Martin, D. , ; Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Reliability of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 146-155. Pollock, B. , ; Reynolds, C. (2000). Depression late in life. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 17, 3-5. Pollock, B. , ; Weksler, M. (2000). Clinical update: How to recognize and treat depression in older persons. Geriatrics, 55, 67-7 . Raccio-Robak, N. , McErlean, M. , Fabacher, D. , Milano, P. , ; Verdile, V. (2002). Socioeconomic and health status differences between depressed and non-depressed elders. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 20, 71-73. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. Radloff, L. , ; Locke, B. (Eds. ). (1986). The community mental health assessment survey and the CES-D scale. In M. M. Weissman, J. K. Myers, ; C. E. Ross (Eds. , Community surveys of psychiatric disorders (pp. 177-189). Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Raskin, A. , Schulterbrandt, J. , Reatig, N. , ; McKeon, J. (1969). Replication of factors of psychopathology in interview, ward behavior, and self-report ratings of hospitalized depressives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 148, 87-96. Roelands, M. , Van Oost, P. , Buysse, A. , ; Depoorter, A. (2002). Awareness among communit y- dwelling elderly of assistive devices for mobility and self-care and attitudes towards their use. Social Science and Medicine, 54, 1441-1451. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, ; National Institute of Mental Health. (1994). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General— Executive summary: Chapter 5–Depression in older adults. Rockville, MD: Authors. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http://mentalhealth. org/features/surgeongeneralreport/chapter5/sec3. asp Schiller, J. , Bernadel, L. (2004). Summary health statistics for the U. S. opulation: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Statistics, 10(220) 1-101. Tomita, M. , Mann, W. , Fraas, L. (2004). Predictors of the use of assistive devices that address physical impairments among community-based frail elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23, 141-155. Verbrugge, L. , Sevak, P. (2002). Use, type, and efficacy of assistance for disability. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychologi cal Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B, S366-S37 . Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation. Westfall, P. , ; Young, S. (1993). Resampling-based multiple testing: Examples and methods for p-value adjustment. New York: Wiley. Wilcoxon, F. (1945). Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics, 1, 80-83. William C. Mann, OTR, PhD, is Chairperson and Distinguished Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, P. O. Box 100164, Gainesville, FL 32610-0164; wmann@phhp. ufl. edu Jessica L. Johnson, MA, OTR/L, is Research Assistant, RERC-Tech-Aging, Rehabilitation Science Doctoral Program, University of Florida, Gainesville. Lisa G. Lynch, MHS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist and Owner, Creative Therapy Works, Inc. , Lake Worth, FL. Michael D. Justiss, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Machiko Tomita, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Samuel S. Wu, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, University of Florida, Gainesville. Abnormal Psychology Critique Sheila Laine Dela Paz Date submitted : January 30, 2012 ABSTRACT This study sought to understand how functional status, impairment level, and use of assistive devices change over 3 years for older adults with depressive symptoms. I further explored factors that predict change in severity of depressive symptoms. During 3 years, participants experienced ncreased physical disability, a decline in severity of depressive symptoms, and an increase in the total number of assistive devices owned. A significant number of older adults will experience a decrease in depressive symptoms over 3 years, despite an increase in physical disability. They also will obtain more assistive devices as they age. The specific issue that stands out in the journal is relative to the various changes in impairment level, functional status and use of some suggested assistive devices that could be used by older people who suffer symptoms of depression. I do very much agree how the author ouched the subject and expl ained depression among the older people. There is nothing from the journal article that I disagree about. The points presented by the author about the existence of this feeling of depression among the older people are true and satisfactory. The second journal that I have, Suicide In Older Adults : Nursing Assessment Of Suicide by Linda Garand, PhD, APRN, BC, Ann M. Mitchell, PhD, RN, AHN, BC, Ann Dietrick, MSN, APRN, BC, Sophia P. Hijjawi, BSN, RN, and Di Pan, BSN, RN, is somewhat parallel to my first journal. This second article talks about suicide in older adults. It is being discussed here that suicide and attempted suicide is associated with depression, psychosis and substance abuse among younger individuals, yet among older adults, depression and co morbid medical conditions play important contributory roles. Same as what was being talked about in the first article. The issue that attracts my attention is on the prevalence of suicidal behaviors in older adults and lays a foundation for understanding the role of risk factors in the prevention of suicide. Just like in the first article, the issue focuses more on depression on older adults. It has been proven that the older adults are the one that easily get depressed than the younger ones. Just as no single factor is universally causal, no single intervention will prevent all suicides. The multi-dimensionality of suicide presents great challenges, but also has important implications for prevention. Suicide in late life must be understood as a complex combination of interactive effects in which mood disorders take a central role. Our ability to more precisely target preventive interventions will hinge on a better understanding of those relationships. Until then, urses and others must be diligent in the identification of older adults at risk for suicide. Subgroups of older adults at high risk for suicide include those with depressive illnesses, previous suicide attempts, physical illnesses, and those who are socially isolated. Therefore I can say, that major depression is the most common diagnosis in older adults (of both sexes) who attempt or complete suicide. This stud y used data from Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Aging Consumer Assessment Study, a longitudinal study of coping strategies of elders with disabilities. Seventy-three participants with depressive symptoms were interviewed at baseline and 3 years later. I believe that the author used the most appropriate method because they have come about with good results. And thus, there is no other appropriate or suitable way to test the depressive symptoms of older people than having a study or conducting a survey on a rehabilitation center. For me, application through conducting tests would be the best idea to prove whether the issue is correct or not. The journal article fully and clearly explains what depression is all about that affects the lder people. It is notable that depression happens to some people more especially the old ones who are said to be prone to the disorder. Upon relating the topic to my course, such situation is under the field of Abnormal Psychology. The field is of great importance to students taking up Psychology course like me who would desire to pursue the field of Clinical Psychology. As depression is common and could happen to everyone, this study is applicable to all. Through it, we shall have a clear idea of the appropriate way to do if ever we meet or experience a feeling of depression. Above all things, this will be a great help to me who would really like to be a successful Clinical Psychologist in the future. REFERENCES Mann, William C. , et al. â€Å"Changes in impairment level, functional status, and use of assistive devices by older people with depressive symptoms. †Ã‚  AJOT: American Journal of Occupational Therapy  62. 1 (2008): 9+. InfoTrac Custom 100 Titles. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. Document URL http://find. galegroup. com/gtx/infomark. do? source=galesrcprod=SP00prodId=SPJ. SP00u serGroupName=phmtctabID=T002docId=A208219498type=retrievecontentSet=IAC- Documentsversion=1. 0 Agree, E. , Freedman, V. (2003). A comparison of assistive technology and personal care in alleviating disability and unmet need. Gerontologist, 43, 335-344. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Bergner, M. , Bobbitt, R. , Pollard, W. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Validation of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 57-67. Bradburn, N. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine. Center for Functional Assessment Research. 1990). Guide for use of the Uniform Data Set for Medical Rehabilitation (Version 3. 1). Buffalo, NY: Author. Chen, T. Y. , Mann, W. C. , Tomita, M. , Nochajski, S. (2000). Caregiver involvement in the use of assistive devices by frail older persons. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 179- 199. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004). Older Americans 2004: K ey indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Fillenbaum, G. G. (1988). Multidimensional functional assessment of older adults: The Duke Older American Resources and Services procedures. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fillenbaum, G. G. , Smyer, M. A. (1981). The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 428-434. Folstein, M. , Folstein, S. E. , McHugh, P. (1975). â€Å"Mini-Mental State†: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189- 198. Gilson, B. S. , Gilson, J. S. , Bergner, M. , Bobbit, R. A. , Kressel, S. , Pollard, W. E. , et al. (1975). The Sickness Impact Profile: Development of an outcome measure of health care. American Journal of Public Health, 65, 1304-1325. Hamilton, B. , Granger, C. , Sherwin, F. , Zielenzy, M. , Tashman, J. (1987). A uniform national data system for medical rehabilitation. In M. Fuhrer (Ed. ), Rehabilitation outcomes: Analysis and measurement (pp. 137-147). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurologic Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. Hoenig, H. , Taylor, D. , Sloan, F. (2003). Does assistive technology substitute for personal assistance among the disabled elderly? American Journal of Public Health, 93, 330-337. Kruskal, W. , Wallis, W. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 583-621. Lebowitz, B. , Pearson, J. , Schneider, L. , Reynolds, C. , Alexopoulos, G. , Bruce, M. , et al. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1186-1190. Lenze, E. , Schulz, R. , Matire, L. , Zdaniuk, B. , Glass, T. , Kop, W. , et al. (2005). The course of functional decline in older people with persistently elevated depressive symptoms: Longitudinal findings from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53, 569-575. Lubin, B. (1967). Manual for the Depression Adjective Check Lists. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Mann, W. , Llanes, C. , Justiss, M. , Tomita, M. (2004). Frail older adults’ self-report of their most important assistive device. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research: Occupation, Participation, and Health, 24, 4-12. Mann, W. , Ottenbacher, K. , Fraas, L. , Tomita, M. , ; Granger, C. (1999). Effectiveness of assistive technology and environmental interventions in maintaining independence and reducing home care costs for the frail elderly. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, 210-217. Noel, P. , Williams, J. , Unutzer, J. , Worchel, J. , Lee, S. , Cornell, J. , et al. (2004). Depression and comorbid illness in elderly primary care patients: Impact on multiple domains of health status and well-being. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 555-562. Ottenbacher, K. , Mann, W. , Granger, C. , Tomita, M. , Hurren, D. , ; Charvat, B. (1994). Inter- rater agreement and stability of functional assessment in the community-based elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1297-1301. Pollak, N. , Rheult, W. , ; Stoecker, J. 1996). Reliability and validity of the FIM for persons aged 80 years and above from a multilevel continuing care retirement community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1056-1061. Pollard, W. , Bobbitt, R. , Bergner, M. , Martin, D. , ; Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Reliability of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 146-155. Pollock, B. , ; Reynolds, C. (2000). Depression late in life. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 17, 3-5. Pollock, B. , ; Weksler, M. (2000). Clinical update: How to recognize and treat depression in older persons. Geriatrics, 55, 67-7 . Raccio-Robak, N. , McErlean, M. , Fabacher, D. , Milano, P. , ; Verdile, V. (2002). Socioeconomic and health status differences between depressed and non-depressed elders. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 20, 71-73. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. Radloff, L. , ; Locke, B. (Eds. ). (1986). The community mental health assessment survey and the CES-D scale. In M. M. Weissman, J. K. Myers, ; C. E. Ross (Eds. , Community surveys of psychiatric disorders (pp. 177-189). Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Raskin, A. , Schulterbrandt, J. , Reatig, N. , ; McKeon, J. (1969). Replication of factors of psychopathology in interview, ward behavior, and self-report ratings of hospitalized depressives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 148, 87-96. Roelands, M. , Van Oost, P. , Buysse, A. , ; Depoorter, A. (2002). Awareness among communit y- dwelling elderly of assistive devices for mobility and self-care and attitudes towards their use. Social Science and Medicine, 54, 1441-1451. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, ; National Institute of Mental Health. (1994). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General— Executive summary: Chapter 5–Depression in older adults. Rockville, MD: Authors. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http://mentalhealth. org/features/surgeongeneralreport/chapter5/sec3. asp Schiller, J. , Bernadel, L. (2004). Summary health statistics for the U. S. opulation: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Statistics, 10(220) 1-101. Tomita, M. , Mann, W. , Fraas, L. (2004). Predictors of the use of assistive devices that address physical impairments among community-based frail elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23, 141-155. Verbrugge, L. , Sevak, P. (2002). Use, type, and efficacy of assistance for disability. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychologi cal Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B, S366-S37 . Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation. Westfall, P. , ; Young, S. (1993). Resampling-based multiple testing: Examples and methods for p-value adjustment. New York: Wiley. Wilcoxon, F. (1945). Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics, 1, 80-83. William C. Mann, OTR, PhD, is Chairperson and Distinguished Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, P. O. Box 100164, Gainesville, FL 32610-0164; wmann@phhp. ufl. edu Jessica L. Johnson, MA, OTR/L, is Research Assistant, RERC-Tech-Aging, Rehabilitation Science Doctoral Program, University of Florida, Gainesville. Lisa G. Lynch, MHS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist and Owner, Creative Therapy Works, Inc. , Lake Worth, FL. Michael D. Justiss, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Machiko Tomita, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Samuel S. Wu, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Methodology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Methodology - Essay Example This section of the research will partly adopt Saunders’s research union approach (Saunders et.al 2009 p, 12-17) or model that consists of six stages that including the philosophies, approaches, strategies, choices, time horizons and techniques and procedures. Research Philosophy The most suitable philosophy forour study is pragmatism. Pragmatism enables the researcher to avoid philosophical issues that might arise from choosing either positivism or phenomenology. This will enable the researcher use the most appropriate approach to comprehend the research problem as it is neither constrained to reality nor philosophy (Saunders et al., 2009, p 108-120). Despite this elaborate choice, the research will apply interpetivism and subjectivism. The study will analyze current existing literature from various sources, that is, secondary data. The researcher will also attempt to analyze the data collected to make conclusions. The research will try study available body of knowledge on th e subject with the aim of establishing whether the body of knowledge is valid or not Collis and Hussey (2003, pg.48); this is referred to as epistemology. Since pragmatism is focused on giving solutions to the research questions, it is the most appropriate method to be used in the study. ... In the same view information, information from the various online databases such as EBSCO, Emerald, and Blackwell may be quantitave giving an objective view to the study. This means that a pragmatic approach would be appropriate for the research. Research Approach The research will employ qualitative data to meet the research objectives. This research seeks to explore and comprehend the social problem. The process will involve scrutinizing emerging inquiries and processes. The data will be analyzed in relation to the setting in which it was collected as indicate in the secondary data sources. The research will, therefore, use an inductive approach where the aspects will be built from a particular to a general thesis as the researcher construes of the information. The research data will come from publications, articles, and journals. The research will entail a broad analysis of previous researches in the same topics or those related to our research topic. Once the available literature has been analytically reviewed, the researcher will inductively build on the various aspects that have been or not been looked at by past studies. The study will involve the use of qualitative data collected from libraries such as online databases that the researcher will access to gain more relevant and updated information. These will include websites and databases such as EBSCO, Emarald, and Blakwell. The research will involve analysis of news postings on the various websites during the year. Research Strategy The research will employ ethnographic and archival strategies of research. The archival method enables the researcher to analyze or investigate events from a distance. The research

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Abelard and Finding the True Career Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Abelard and Finding the True Career - Essay Example His father, Berengar, was lord of the village, his mother's name was Lucia; both afterwards entered the monastic state. Peter, the oldest of their children, was intended for a military career, but, as he himself tells us, he abandoned Mars for Minerva, the profession of arms for that of learning. Accordingly, at an early age, he left his father's castle and sought instruction as a wandering scholar at the schools of the most renowned teachers of those days. Among these teachers was Roscelin the Nominalist, at whose school at Locmenach, near Vannes, Abelard certainly spent some time before he proceeded to Paris. Although the University of Paris did not exist as a corporate institution until more than half a century after Abelard's death, there flourished at Paris in his time the Cathedral School, the School of Ste. Genevive, and that of St. Germain des Pr, the forerunners of the university schools of the following century. The Cathedral School was undoubtedly the most important of the se, and thither the young Abelard directed his steps in order to study dialectic under the renowned master (scholasticus) William of Champeaux. Soon, (New Advent) however, the youth from the province, for whom the prestige of a great name was far from awe-inspiring, not only ventured to object to the teaching of the Parisian master, but also attempted to set up as a rival teacher. Finding that this was not an easy matter in Paris, he established his school first at Melun and later at Corbeil. This was, probably, in the year 1101. The next couple of years Abelard spent in his native place "almost cut off from France", as he says. The reason of this enforced retreat from the dialectical fray was failing health. On returning to Paris, he became once more a pupil of William of Champeaux for the purpose of studying rhetoric. When William retired to the monastery of St. Victor, Abelard, who meantime had resumed his teaching at Melun, hastened to Paris to secure the chair of the Cathedral School. Having failed in this, he set up his school in Mt. Ste. Genevieve (1108). There and at the Cathedral School, in which in 1113 he finally succeeded in obtaining a chair, he enjoyed the greatest renown as a teacher of rhetoric and dialectic. Before taking up the duty of teaching theology at the Cathedral School, he went to Laon where he presented himself to the venerable Anselm of Laon as a student of theology. Soon, however, his petulant restiveness under restraint once more asserted itself, and he was not content until he had as completely discomfited the teacher of theology at Laon as he had successfully harassed the teacher of rhetoric and dialectic at Paris. Taking Abelard's own account of the incident, it is impossible not to blame him for the temerity which made him such enemies as Alberic and Lotulph, pupils of Anselm, who, later on, appeared against Abelard. The "theological studies" pursued by Abelard at Laon were what we would nowadays call the study of exegesis. (N ew Advent) After examination of the information regarding Aberland's life it is clear that his intended role in life was one of the son of a wealthy man yet he chose teaching The question that needs to examined next is, as his true destiny to be a wealthy son and in charge of the military and arms or was his true calling to be a teacher In his letters, it is easier to gain a better understanding of what his true career was. The letters from the two lovers to each other reveal some significance in the truth